November 16, 2019

TOM CORBETT, SPACE CADET


TOM CORBETT, SPACE CADET
(CBS, ABC, NBC, Dumont, October 2, 1950-June 25, 1955)

Rockhill Productions




MAIN CAST:
Frankie Thomas, Jr. – Tom Corbett
Al Markim – Astro
Jan Merlin – Roger Manning (season 1-4)
Michael Harvey (6 episodes) & Edward Bryce – Captain Steve Strong
Margaret Garland & Pat Ferris (2 episodes) – Dr. Joan Dale
Carter Blake – Commander Arkwright
John Fielder – Cadet Alfie “the Brain” Higgins (season 1-2)
Jack Grimes – Cadet T.J. Thistle (season 5)
Jackson Beck – Narrator (season 1-4)


            Debuting during the Golden Age of television, Tom Corbett, Space Cadet was one of the pioneering programs in science-fiction.

Promo image of Tom Corbett.


            The concept for the series came from a blending of sources. Joseph Greene, a writer for various genres across various media, had conceived of a space-faring hero named Tom Ranger in 1946. He had written the character into a radio script along with his colleagues, Kit Koo and Bob Bradley, and their ship, the Space Arrow. The script was submitted to Orbit Feature Services Inc. under the working title The Space Cadets, and later Space Academy, but it went unproduced. Greene tried again by adapting his characters into a syndicated newspaper strip in 1949, but again it never saw production.

Heinlein's Space Cadet.

            In 1950, CBS was looking to compete with DuMont’s popular series, Captain Video and his Video Rangers. Green saw an opportunity to give his Tom Ranger concept another go, but there was a slight hitch. In the interim, Robert A. Heinlein published a juvenile novel called Space Cadet in 1948 which featured concepts very close to that of Tom Ranger. Rockhill Productions, who Greene submitted one of his scripts to, was interested in developing the concept for their expansion into television. They purchased the rights for the term “Space Cadet” from Heinlein and used the connection to bolster publicity for the project. At the insistence of Rockhill’s Stanley Wolf, the title was expanded to Tom Ranger, Space Cadet. From there Tom Ranger would go on to become Tom Corbett at the last minute.

Space Academy.

            Tom Corbett, Space Cadet was set in the 24th Century, where Earth had become a commonwealth with cities combined into several megalopolis and had established colonies and outpost throughout most of the inner solar system called the Solar Alliance. The peacekeeping force charged with protecting the Alliance was The Solar Guard, who were also tasked with exploring the unknown and conducting scientific research. New recruits, called cadets, enlisted into the Space Academy with the hopes of joining the Solar Guard—provided they can cut the mustard both in skill and meeting the stringent discipline requirements of the Academy.

Tom, Astro and Roger.

            Cadets were grouped into units of threes with an emphasis on teamwork. Tom Corbett (Frankie Thomas, Jr., in his 30s at the time he was cast to play a teen) was the command cadet for his, which also featured Roger Manning (Jan Merlin) and Astro (Al Markim), and were directly overseen by Captain Steve Strong (Michael Harvey for the first 6 episodes, replaced by Edward Bryce when he had difficulty remembering his lines). Astro was an orphan born on the Venus colony with an extensive knowledge on rockets and their engines, making him the power cadet in charge of fueling the ship’s engines with radioactive material. Manning, while being a brilliant astrogator, was a brash and arrogant ladies’ man (an improvised line cemented his smartass personality) who initially harbored racist feelings towards Astro until they eventually worked through their differences. He served as the unit’s radar cadet. A 4th classification, Advanced Science Cadet, would sometimes accompany the unit on missions but typically stayed behind at the Academy doing research. Together, the cadets manned the spaceship Polaris.

Ad featuring Dr. Joan Dale.

            Other characters included Commander Arkwright (Carter Blake), the head of the Academy; Dr. Joan Dale (Margaret Garland, Pat Ferris for 2 episodes), an instructor who developed the Hyper-Drive (a small bit of progressivism at the time); Major “Blastoff” Connell (Ben Stone), an incredibly strict member of the Academy who would had loved to expel the Polaris crew; Cadet Alfie “the Brain” Higgins (John Fielder, in his first role), science cadet; and Cadet Eric Rattison (Frank Sutton), Tom’s rival at the Academy.

Tom in his space suit.

            Tom Corbett, Space Cadet made its debut on CBS on October 2, 1950. The series was written by Art Wallace, Albert Aley, Jack Weinstock, Willie Gilbert, Richard Jessup, Palmer Thompson, Ray Morse, Alfred Bester, George Lowther, Stu Byrnes and Thomas. Unlike Space Patrol, which had debuted months prior, Tom Corbett was more character-driven than action-oriented. Although it would take some liberties, such as creating a “Hyper-Drive” to allow for faster than lightspeed travel to distant locations, the series held closely to scientific accuracy (as established at the time) overseen by technical advisor Willy Ley; a German scientist and writer who became an expert on rocketry. As a result, the Polaris crew didn’t employ things like laser guns and didn’t encounter many aliens. Instead, the series was kept “grounded” with common, everyday situations familiar to the audience but set in space, and themes borrowed extensively from old westerns. The small budget and limited technology were a boon, forcing the scripts to be extremely focused and brisk in their pacing.

A cutaway diagram of the Polaris.

            Tom Corbett became a smash hit, running 5 seasons. It received praise for its mature storytelling and innovative special effects. Tom Corbett had the rare distinction of being the first program to be broadcast across all four major networks during its run. The first season ran on CBS before moving to ABC for the next two seasons. The show was aired 3 days a week, broadcast live for 15 minutes an episode. During the ABC run, three episodes would be repackaged and condensed into a 30-minute show with narration by Thomas to serve as a summer replacement for The Victor Borge Show on NBC Saturday nights. After an 11-month hiatus, Tom Corbett returned airing on the DuMont Network, airing alternate Saturdays. 7 months later, the final batch of episodes would return to NBC on Saturday mornings. Despite the hiatuses, the show’s popularity remained strong.

The diminutive T.J. joins the crew.

            After the DuMont run, Merlin decided he wanted to leave the show to avoid being typecast as a space cadet for the rest of his career. For the final NBC run he was replaced by Jack Grimes as T.J. Thistle; a cowardly cadet who tended to have a chip on his shoulder because of his short stature. The NBC run, sponsored by Kraft, featured a significant reduction to the already miniscule budget, further limiting the amount of sets used and resulting in the removal of Jackson Beck as the long-serving narrator. Popularity for the series did wane, resulting in its cancellation. However, it was strongly considered as late as 1957 to bring the show back to the airwaves.

One of the newspaper strips.

            The show’s popularity led to a wealth of merchandising and spin-off opportunities. A comic strip ran from September 9, 1951 to September 6, 1953 drawn by Ray Bailey and primarily written by Paul S. Newman. Grosset & Dunlap, for whom Greene worked as an editor, published a series of 8 juvenile novels written by the pseudonym Carey Rockwell (believed to have been Greene himself). The books generally featured a lot of inconsistencies when compared to the television show, however Ley did also serve as scientific advisor. Saalfield Publishing Co. released a coloring book in 1952, and Wonder Books published a children’s book in 1953 called Tom Corbett’s Wonder Book of Space. From January 1 to June 26, 1952, a radio program aired adapting television episodes into a half-hour show twice a week with the cast reprising their roles. An album featuring several songs from the series was released by Golden Sound Records in 1951, as well as a recorded adventure in 1952 from Little Nipper Junior Records.

The cover to Dell's Tom Corbett #9.

            Dell Comics began publishing comics based on the show in 1952. The first three adventures were featured in Dell’s tryout book for potential new series, 4-Color, in #’s 378, 400 & 421. Satisfied with audience reaction, Dell spun-off the series into its own title beginning with #4 and in an issue of March of Comics with issue #102. As the show tapered off, Dell cancelled the title with #11 in 1954. Prize Comics took up the license in 1955 and published three more issues. In 1990, Eternity Comics reprinted the Dell/Prize comics as The Original Tom Corbett, Space Cadet, along with two of their own 4-issue limited series in a manga style. The Dell/Prize books were reprinted again in 2017 by PS Artbooks as part of their Pre-Code Classics series. Bluewater Productions (now Tidalwave Productions) went on to published a new 4-issue series in 2009. Bluewater also partnered with The Colonial Radio Theatre on the Air to produce a dramatic radio version of their series.

One of the View-Master slide images.

            Tom Corbett was heavily merchandised during the show’s run. Space Cadet Identification Badges and miniature spacemen, and a Strato-Treasure Hunt Game were made available with purchase of Red Goose Emery Oxford Shoes, one of the show’s sponsors. The spacemen were also available with John C. Roberts Shoes. During Kellogg’s sponsorship, a membership kit was offered through their Corn Flakes brand. They also rebranded their cereal Pep into Pep: The Solar Cereal, which featured cardboard cutouts of space cadet gear and a premium giveaway of goggles. When Kraft took over sponsorship, a Space Cadet Membership Kit was offered for .25 cents and a Kraft tab or wrapper. Among other merchandise was various tin and plastic toys were made by Marx, including a pistol and playsets; metal lunchboxes made by Aladdin; a plastic space helmet from Plasti-Cole Products, Inc.; a costume from Yankiboy Play Clothes; a three-reel View-Master set; and more.

The album.

            Tom Corbett had a lasting impression on science-fiction, as well as introduced the terms “space cadet” and “blast off” into the lexicon that would become closely associated with the genre. Following the conclusion of the series, Rockhill came under possession of the IRS for failure to pay taxes. Direct Recordings, Inc., ended up purchasing Rockhill’s from the IRS, including the rights to Tom Corbett. The remaining artifacts from the show retained by Wolfe were donated to the University of Southern California. In 1984, Greene gave his personal kinescopes of the show to nostalgia merchant Wade Williams, who also possessed a number of the half-hour, 15-minute and radio shows. In 1993, Thomas, Markim and Merlin were reunited to perform one of the old episodes as a radio broadcast for Friends of Old Time Radio. Thomas, who viewed the Corbett role as the role of a lifetime, requested to be buried in his space cadet uniform upon his death in 2006.




EPISODE GUIDE (some information not available):
Season 2/3 (incomplete):      
(11/12/51) – Tom sets out to prove Captain Strong is innocent of ignoring a flight plan filed by Captain Wynn.

(12/26/51) – The Polaris heads for a crash-landing on Mars.

(7/14/52) – A saboteur comes aboard the Polaris disguised as a writer and takes over the ship.

(9/15/52) – The Polaris heads to Titan to administer a vaccine to deal with a plague, and Roger becomes infected when he sneaks away against orders.

(9/19/52) – Infected with the plague, Roger sets the Polaris on the wrong course sending it too close to a comet.

NBC Reruns:
“Space Week” (7/7/51) – A competition between the cadet units at the Academy is marred in controversy when it seems like a member of the Polaris stole an exam paper.

“The Martian Revolt” (7/14/51) – A plan to split up the Space Academy actually masks a deeper plot to destroy the Solar Guard from within.

“Trial in Space” (7/21/51) – Astro appears to have contracted space fever, which could remove him from the unit permanently.

“Graveyard of the Rockets” (7/28/51) – The cadets head on a mission to find a missing scientist in a rocket ship graveyard.

“The Asteroid of Death” (8/4/51) – A stowaway may provide the only way Roger and Captain Strong won’t collide with an anti-matter asteroid.

“The Mystery of Alkar” (8/11/51) – The cadets are menaced by a visitor for Alkar, but an even more deadly threat could destroy the Solar Alliance.

“The Lost Colony of Venus” (8/18/51) – A stowaway commandeers the ship and forces the cadets to help him search for the legendary Lost Colony.

“Summer Space Maneuvers – Part 1” (8/25/51) – The Polaris is damaged on a mission to destroy an asteroid has to land on Jupiter for repairs.

“Summer Space Maneuvers – Part 2” (9/1/51) – Jupiter’s strong gravity and harsh environment make repairing the Polaris a difficult and dangerous task.

Season 4:
“The Million Dollar Patrol” (8/29/53) – While the Space Academy is in danger of closing, the cadets have to rescue the passengers of a crippled rocket liner a million miles away.

“The Trojan Planets” (9/12/53) – The deserted planets orbiting Jupiter turn out to be anything but.

“The Outpost of Danger” (9/26/53) – The cadets are tasked with saving the Minas outpost from a rampant disease.

“Target Danger” (10/10/53) – The cadets find themselves targeted with real weapons during a mock invasion, and a feud between cadets leads to the wreck of the Commander’s flagship.

“The Mountains of Fire” (10/24/53) – The cadets use the Polaris to prevent the destruction of an important agricultural station.

“The Ghost Ship” (11/7/53) – The cadets investigate a mysterious ship that seemingly crashes into other ships accidentally.

“The Beacon of Danger” (11/21/53) – A crooked mechanic disables a beacon in the hopes of causing a treasury ship to crash.

“Spaceship of Death” (12/5/53) – An exploding spaceship threatens an airport.

“The Raiders of the Asteroids” (12/19/53) – The cadets go undercover in order to capture space gangsters.

“The Planet of Doom” (1/2/54) – Two auxiliary cadets crash their spaceship on Jupiter because of negligence.

“Cargo of Death” (1/16/54) – A negligent captain kidnaps Roger for the crew of his next poorly-maintained ship, leading to Tom and Astro going undercover to save Roger and the ship.

“The Iron Major” (1/30/54) – The cadets are forbidden to leave the ship while in port.

“The Space Projectile” (2/13/54) – Tom has to stop the sabotage of a cargo firing tube.

“Rescue in Space” (2/27/54) – NO SYNOPSIS AVAILABLE.

“The Earth Digger” (3/13/54) – The crew goes to clear a cave-in in the tunnels under the moon’s surface.

“Space Station of Danger” (3/27/54) – The cadets have to rescue a space station from a dangerous compound in the air and a bomb planted by saboteurs.

“Treachery in Space” (4/10/54) – Tom is expelled on the suspicion of treason.

“Comet of Death” (4/24/54) – The crew is put in danger when the Polaris runs into a comet.

“Death Trap” (5/8/54) – A routine flight turns into a rescue mission when a distress signal is received.

“The Runaway Rocket” (5/22/54) – The cadets escort the speed trial of a new rocket that malfunctions and careens towards the sun.

Season 5:
“The Atomic Curtain” (12/11/54) – Two cadets end up trapped behind an atomic curtain.

“Astro’s Trial” (12/18/54) – After Astro’s orders lead to a spaceship crash, Tom has to prove his friend innocent of negligence.

“The Runaway Asteroid” (1/1/55) – The crew sets out to alter the course of an asteroid and transform it into a space station orbiting Jupiter.

“Suit Up For Death” (1/8/55) – Major Bemus refuses to believe that the oxygen tanks on the Academy spacesuits are defective.

“Mystery of the Mothball Fleet” (1/15/55) – The cadets are assigned to the Solar Guard’s fleet anchorage where a crew member was reported dead.

“The Life Ray” (1/22/55) – The crew must restore the life ray.

“A Mighty Mite” (1/29/55) – T.J. feels discouraged about his role in the crew until a fuel leak allows him to prove himself.

“Ace of the Space Lanes” (2/5/55) – Captain Cowan’s reckless desire to break a speed record puts the whole crew in danger.

“The Asteroid Station” (2/12/55) – A reporter comes to investigate the Solar Guard’s asteroid station, a project which his paper was against.

“The Grapes of Ganymede” (2/19/55) – The crew searches for the source of contaminated grapes that are causing sickness throughout the solar alliance.

“Assignment: Mercury” (2/26/55) – A technical error by T.J. puts Tom and Major Connel in danger on Mercury.

“Smugglers of Death’ (3/5/55) – The cadets have to stop smugglers from sending a crystal that breaks down ores from space to Earth.

“The Mystery of the Missing Mail Ship” (3/12/55) – In revenge for his dishonorable discharge, Captain Cowan hijacks the Titan Mail Ship.

“The Gremlin of Space” (3/19/55) – A punishment assignment leads the cadets to deal with transporting a troublesome chip to the zoo at Venusport.

“Terror in Space” (3/26/55) – An accident sends Astro floating away in space, but even when he’s rescued the psychological impact of the ordeal may keep him from space forever.

“Spaceship of Danger” (4/2/55) – The cadets take a ship home from vacation, unaware that its captain plans to scuttle it for the insurance money.

“The Magnetic Asteroid” (4/9/55) – T.J.’s feud with a rival ship may hinder a mission to track and stop an asteroid with a strong magnetic field.

“The Danger in the Asteroid Belt” (4/16/55) – The cadets end up trapped on a training ship as it’s about to enter an asteroid belt.

“False Alert” (4/23/55) – A phony distress call lures the Polaris into a trap.

“The Space Projectile” (4/30/55) – A mission to retrieve data from a robot rocket sees T.J. and Captain Strong ending up careening towards a white star.

“The Outpost of Terror” (5/7/55) – The cadets visit a Triton outpost to discover the body of a radiation victim.

“Exercise for Death” (5/14/55) – The cadets try to impress a higher-up during a training exercise, but they end up sending their target flying into other ships.

“Ambush in Space” (5/21/55) – Roy Cowan escapes from prison and lures the Polaris into a trap to enact his revenge.

“The Stowaway” (5/28/55) – A new reactor test is hampered by the Defense Minister’s daughter, who stowed away on the Polaris.

“A Fight for Survival” (6/4/55) – The cadets fly an old ship to Venusport to be scrapped, but its reactors malfunction and leaves them stranded in a Venusian jungle.

“Space Blindness” (6/11/55) – An eccentric scientist who wants to photograph a nova named for him leads to his escort, Commander Arkwright, going blind from the nova’s intense light.

“Comet of Danger” (6/18/55) – A photographer riding along on the Polaris insists the crew take it through a speeding comet.

“The Final Test” (6/25/55) – The cadets take their final exam which includes a dangerous flight into deep space.

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